Watching the Super Blood Wolf Moon? What to Know About This Lunar Phenomenon

Our in-house Know-It-Alls answer questions about your interactions with technology and science. Today, we weigh in on the January 20, 2019, total lunar eclipse and the wild nomenclature surrounding it.

Q: What does it mean to be a super blood wolf moon?

A: Like presidential elections and celebrity drama, the beauty and intrigue of lunar events lies in their regularity. Supermoon! Blood moon! Harvest moon! Wolf harvest sturgeon blue blood pink worm supermoon!

Alright, maybe that last one isn’t a thing (a pink moon being the full moon in April, a sturgeon being the one in August). There are literally dozens of nicknames for the moons at various times of the year—January’s full moon is known as wolf but also the ice moon or old moon, and, hell, you may as well make up your own at this point.

But here’s the thing: It’s the damn moon. It turns reddish in a blood moon because we’re dealing with a total lunar eclipse: The sun sends light through our atmosphere, scattering short wavelengths like blue while longer wavelengths like red continue to the moon. Our trusty satellite waxes and wanes, moves slightly closer and farther from Earth due to its elliptical orbit, and gives us lunar and solar eclipses with predictable regularity. The moon is kinda clingy, and we love it for that.

Say you have a super blood wolf moon, which is super because it’s closer to Earth in its elliptical orbit and a wolf because it’s a January full moon. Now, I’m not going to sit here and put on a clinic about the origin of every moon nickname, but they drive astronomers crazy. “When I see all these headlines about the wolf blood super moon, I go nuts,” says Fred Espenak, scientist emeritus at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “Because it’s a total eclipse of the moon—that’s what’s not in the headline. It’s all these other terms to try to engage the public and get them to click stuff, but it kind of hides what the message is: It’s a total eclipse of the moon, which is a great term right there.” That, though, just isn’t good enough for some folks.

Another honorific that particularly irks astronomers: the supermoon. It’s a moon that appears bigger to us, because again, the moon follows an elliptical orbit. But really, it’s only 14 percent bigger, which is imperceptible to the human eye.

“I think the use of that term baits the public into thinking something great is going to go on outside,” says Espenak, “and they run out to see it and they’re disappointed because it just looks like a full moon. You can’t see the several percent that it’s larger or smaller.”

Oh, also. It wasn’t an astronomer who thought up the term supermoon, but an astrologer, who claimed the event is linked to seismic events and the weather. And astrology is about as far from science as a wolf on Earth is from a wolf moon. “Supermoon is a brand new term,” Espenak says. “It wasn’t anything that astronomers paid any attention to. Yeah, it was a closer moon, but it was sort of like, ‘Yeah, so what?’”

So OK, meh on supermoon. But that’s not to say that the human obsession with the moon—and naming full moons in particular—is altogether unreasonable, historically speaking. “If anyone has taken a walk under a full moon, it’s very bright,” says research scientist Noah Petro, also of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “You can understand why hunters might want to hunt by a full moon. It makes sense that it would mean something.”

Indeed, other nicknames for the moon are grounded in genuine utility. The full moon closest to the autumn equinox is known as the harvest moon, because before electricity, the glow afforded farmers the opportunity to work at night. Having a good grasp of the moon’s behavior would also help seagoing peoples divine changes in tides. A solid understanding of the moon’s phases has been pivotal for warmongering too, if that’s what you’re into: It’d be less than wise to launch a surprise night attack with a full moon over your head.

The utility of moon nicknames, though, has largely disappeared in this modern world. Except, that is, for using the moon as a grand educational platform. “It’s marketing,” says Petro. “Because everyone can go out and with their own naked eyes look at them and see the light and dark areas and make the most basic of observations. It’s unifying in that regard.”

The caveat being: If you build up a supermoon as something that’s actually super, you’ll sow disappointment. But the moon does offer a uniquely accessible platform for getting nerdy about science—you don’t need a lab full of equipment or even a telescope to enjoy it.

“One of the biggest practical values of total lunar eclipses in this day and age is simply to spark the interest of kids and students to go out and look at something,” says Espenak. “Especially when 90 or 95 percent of people live in metropolitan areas and you can’t see the Milky Way. A total lunar eclipse is something you can see from downtown in any big city.”

So yes, do go look at the moon, the fickle moon, the inconstant moon, that monthly changes in her circle orb. It’s a poetical, astronomical object; no need to gussy it up with fish and blood.


Matt Simon is a science writer at WIRED who, to be clear, loves the moon. But he also gets picky with semantics, as you might have noticed.

What can we tell you? No, really, what do you want one of our in-house experts to tell you? Post your question in the comments or email the Know-It-Alls.


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Viewing the Super Blood Wolf Moon? What to find out about This Lunar Phenomenon

Our in-house Know-It-Alls answer questions regarding the interactions with technology and science. Today, we weigh in regarding January 20, 2019, total lunar eclipse as well as the crazy nomenclature surrounding it.

Q: What does it mean to be a super bloodstream wolf moon?

A: Like presidential elections and celebrity drama, the wonder and intrigue of lunar occasions lies in their regularity. Supermoon! Bloodstream moon! Harvest moon! Wolf harvest sturgeon blue blood pink worm supermoon!

Alright, possibly that final one isn’t a thing (a pink moon being the entire moon in April, a sturgeon being the one in August). You will find literally lots of nicknames for the moons at various times of the year—January’s full moon is recognized as wolf but also the ice moon or old moon, and, hell, you may possibly as well make up your now.

But here’s the thing: It’s the damn moon. It turns reddish in a bloodstream moon because we’re dealing with a complete lunar eclipse: sunlight delivers light through our atmosphere, scattering quick wavelengths like blue while longer wavelengths like red continue steadily to the moon. Our trusty satellite waxes and wanes, moves somewhat closer and farther from world because elliptical orbit, and provides us lunar and solar eclipses with predictable regularity. The moon is kinda clingy, so we think it’s great for that.

Say there is a super blood wolf moon, that will be super as it’s nearer to world in its elliptical orbit plus wolf as it’s a January full moon. Now, I’m maybe not gonna stay here and place for a hospital concerning the beginning of every moon nickname, however they drive astronomers crazy. “once I see every one of these headlines towards wolf bloodstream super moon, I go nuts,” states Fred Espenak, scientist emeritus at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. “Because it’s a total eclipse associated with moon—that’s what’s perhaps not into the headline. It Is all these other terms to try and engage the public and get them to click material, nonetheless it form of hides exactly what the message is: It Is A total eclipse associated with the moon, which is a great term there.” That, however, just isn’t adequate for many people.

Another honorific that especially irks astronomers: the supermoon. It’s a moon that appears bigger to us, because once more, the moon follows an elliptical orbit. But really, it’s only 14 per cent bigger, that will be imperceptible towards human eye.

“I think making use of that term baits people into thinking something great is going to carry on outside,” states Espenak, “and they go out to view it and they’re disappointed since it just looks like a complete moon. You can’t see the several per cent that it is larger or smaller.”

Oh, additionally. It had beenn’t an astronomer whom thought up the expression supermoon, but an astrologer, who stated the big event is linked to seismic activities and also the weather. And astrology is approximately as not even close to science as being a wolf in the world is from the wolf moon. “Supermoon is a completely new term,” Espenak states. “It was not anything that astronomers paid any awareness of. Yeah, it was a closer moon, but it ended up being kind of like, ‘Yeah, so what?’”

Therefore okay, meh on supermoon. But that’s not saying that the individual obsession using the moon—and naming full moons in particular—is entirely unreasonable, historically talking. “If anybody has taken a walk under a full moon, it’s very bright,” claims research scientist Noah Petro, additionally of NASA’s Goddard area Flight Center. “You can realize why hunters might want to hunt with a complete moon. It’s Wise it will mean one thing.”

Indeed, other nicknames for the moon are grounded in genuine energy. The total moon closest to your autumn equinox is recognized as the harvest moon, because before electricity, the radiance afforded farmers the chance to work at night. Having an excellent grasp for the moon’s behavior would also help seagoing individuals divine changes in tides. A great comprehension of the moon’s phases is crucial for warmongering too, if that’s just what you’re into: It’d be significantly less than smart to launch a surprise night assault having complete moon over your head.

The utility of moon nicknames, however, has mostly disappeared within contemporary globe. Except, that is, for making use of the moon as being a grand academic platform. “It’s advertising,” claims Petro. “Because everybody else can venture out sufficient reason for unique naked eyes examine them to discover the light and dark areas and work out the standard of observations. It Is unifying because regard.”

The caveat being: If you build-up a supermoon as something which’s actually super, you’ll sow frustration. Nevertheless the moon possesses a uniquely available platform for getting nerdy about science—you don’t require a lab high in gear or possibly a telescope to enjoy it.

“One of biggest practical values of total lunar eclipses inside day and age is actually to spark the attention of kids and students to go out and appear at one thing,” states Espenak. “Especially whenever 90 or 95 percent of men and women live in urban centers and you can not start to see the Milky Way. A total lunar eclipse is something you can observe from downtown in every big city.”

Therefore yes, do get look at the moon, the fickle moon, the inconstant moon, that month-to-month changes in the woman circle orb. It’s a poetical, astronomical object; you don’t need to gussy it up with seafood and bloodstream.


Matt Simon actually technology author at WIRED who, become clear, loves the moon. But he also gets particular with semantics, while you could have noticed.

Exactly what can we inform you? No, actually, exactly what do you want among our in-house professionals to inform you? Post your concern inside remarks or e-mail the Know-It-Alls.


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Beta’s Ava Is the Edward Scissorhands of Flying Cars

Plattsburgh, New York, is a tough place to be outside in early January. The small city sits on the western shore of Lake Champlain, 20 miles south of the Canadian border. I’ve just arrived with Kyle Clark and a few of his colleagues, after a quick flight in a 40-year-old Cessna from Burlington, Vermont, on the other side of the lake. It’s snowing, and as we shuffle across the mostly abandoned former Air Force base toward a secluded hangar, I ask Clark if the weather might ice today’s flight plans.

He looks at me and laughs, opening the hangar door. “Not a chance.”

It’s no surprise that Clark—tall, athletic, copiously tattooed, and a former pro hockey player—doesn’t mind the winter weather. But these seem like conditions that would threaten the test flight of a rather complex, entirely new, fully electric aircraft. One whose eight motors and rotors must work in computerized synchrony to keep the ship aloft and true, whether going up, down, or forward.

Clark will have none of such worries. He bounds into the cavernous building that once housed B-52 bombers and introduces me to the Ava XC. The gleaming white contraption, with stilt-like landing gear and eight propellers jutting out in every direction, looks like what Tony Stark would build if he had an Edward Scissorhands phase. It is, in fact, the prototype that Clark’s company, Beta Technologies, has built to not only probe the challenges of electric aviation, but also prove it has the aerospace knowhow itself to compete in the crowded, yet-to-be-realized market for battery-powered vertical takeoff and landing aircraft—what you might call flying cars.

Clark’s version, though, appears to be further along than most. It’s one of the few designs relying heavily on a conventional wing to boost efficiency in horizontal flight, and it’s the largest known eVTOL aircraft to fly yet. More importantly, it’s the only one with a confirmed launch customer providing funding. The mostly carbon fiber, 4,000-pound aircraft holds two battery packs totaling 124 kWh. The 34-foot wing sits between outriggers supporting the octet of 143-horsepower permanent-magnet motors and propellers, which pivot from horizontal to 90-degrees straight up. The two layers of counter-rotating props operate independently, so if one layer loses power, the other will keep the Ava in the air—one of many redundancies and safety measures in the aircraft. The funky flyer has a 172 mph top speed and a range of 150 miles.

In the hangar, Clark’s team gets to work preparing the craft for the morning’s test flight. Beta, until now working in secret, has executed 175 of these so far. The plan for the 176th is to position the rotors 70 degrees up from horizontal, to gauge Ava’s stability during the transition from vertical to horizontal flight and back.

The Harvard-educated Clark created Beta in 2017, on the heels of multiple electronics and software startups. (The company name comes from his nickname in college—he was the nerdiest jock of the bunch, apparently.) Beta isn’t overly invested in the much-hyped air taxi market, though. “The goal of this aircraft was to elicit critical thinking about electric aviation,” says Clark, who paid for his pilot’s license with his hockey signing bonus. “The best way to do that was to build something. So we partnered with the company that became our launch customer to create this aircraft, and attempt to fly it across the country.” No better way, he figured, to expose the technical, logistical, and regulatory problems that populate a field now home to more than 130 companies, including Larry Page-funded Kitty Hawk, Airbus, Joby, and Bell.

On the Ava’s planned cross-country flight, the Beta team will follow along in their mobile charging vehicle, a converted tour bus outfitted with generators, solar panels, and an expanding landing pad on the roof.

Eric Adams

That launch customer is United Therapeutics, a Washington, DC-based biotech outfit developing manufactured organs for human transplant. Its founder, Martine Rothblatt (creator of SiriusXM Satellite Radio), has put an undisclosed but substantial sum into Beta, and wants to use its final product to get those organs from factory to hospital. “This technology has the potential for having the lowest carbon footprint and being the most adaptable to the organ delivery needs that we have,” says Rothblatt, who’s also a pilot and recently led the conversion of a Robinson R44 to the world’s first full-sized electric helicopter. “I need to work free of existing constraints, while still being practical in creating things that work,” she says. “Beta has that kind of freethinking culture, but it’s also a disciplined maker culture.”

Beta is stocked with similarly well-credentialed innovators. Its advisory panel includes Segway inventor Dean Kamen and John Abele, founder of medical device manufacturer Boston Scientific. Its battery specialist, Herman Wiegman, was the lead energy storage researcher at GE Global Research. Wireless sensor engineer Chris Townsend also developed that technology for Bell Helicopters and the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet. David Churchill invented the calibration system for accelerometers in the iPhone. Sensor expert Steve Arms founded LORD Microstrain; and software engineer Artur Adib came from Twitter and Magic Leap. The simulation and modeling technology comes from Austin Meyer, creator of the high-fidelity flight simulator X-Plane.

Beta intends to attempt that cross-country flight, going from Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to Santa Monica, California, this spring or summer. Clark—the team’s only test pilot—will likely fly three 60 to 100-mile legs a day, stopping for an hour of charging between them. The team will follow along in Beta’s mobile charging vehicle, a converted tour bus outfitted with generators, solar panels, and an expanding landing pad on the roof. In the same timeframe, Clark will reveal the final configuration of Beta’s production aircraft. The flight controls and most of the tech will be based on that developed for the Ava, he says, but the size, shape, and precise propulsion strategy will change.

Before that cross-country flight can take off, Beta plans to run another 50 test flights or so. The exam set for today, however, looks to be stymied by a severed screw in one of the motor assemblies. The crew fixes it, then finds another. Clark, crawling over the aircraft alongside his team, decides to replace all the fasteners with higher-strength versions. Eventually, about two hours behind schedule, the crew rolls Ava out of the hangar into the snow. They climb aboard two SUVs and tow it out to the flight line, with Clark at the controls.

In between runs of the snow plows clearing the 12,000-foot runway (long enough to serve as an emergency landing spot for the Space Shuttle), Clark spins up the motors. He accelerates down the centerline. Beta’s chase vehicles race alongside, loaded up with engineers tracking telemetry on their laptops. After about 10 seconds, the aircraft lifts off and glides in a steady, straight line, far from the wobbly, hesitant hovering many eVTOL companies have demonstrated so far. Even more remarkably, it actually sounds like Edward Scissorhands in action, but it’s not nearly as loud as a helicopter, good news for those worried that air taxis will be aural menaces. (A straight vertical jump will likely make more noise.) Clark sets it back down, turns around at the end of the strip, and makes another pass.

About halfway down in the other direction, the engineers lose their telemetry signal from the aircraft. A few passes later, a roll sensor in the fly-by-wire control system signals a failure. Clark calls an end to the day’s testing, saying they’ve got the data they needed. He also notes that one of Beta’s current challenges is tuning the code to better decipher between noise and an actual bad sensor.

To date, Ava has achieved flight times of roughly 18 minutes in a hover and more than an hour while tethered, a top speed of 72 knots, and a maximum altitude of 100 feet—and is regularly improving on each. It’s hard to compare that progress against other, largely secretive, eVTOL programs. If this market proves out, though, it will make room for plenty of manufacturers, and thousands of aircraft.

Watching Ava float across the airport, I forget about the falling snow, and about the skeptics dismissing the air taxi industry as cash-burning vaporware. Even with today’s testing hiccups, Beta’s aircraft looks a fine ride for a human organ—or even an entire person—trying to get where they’re going.


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Beta’s Ava could be the Edward Scissorhands of Flying Cars

Plattsburgh, nyc, is just a tough destination to be outside in early January. The small city sits on western coast of Lake Champlain, 20 kilometers south associated with Canadian border. I’ve simply arrived with Kyle Clark and a few of his peers, after having a quick trip in a 40-year-old Cessna from Burlington, Vermont, on the reverse side of the lake. It’s snowing, and also as we shuffle throughout the mostly abandoned former Air Force base toward a secluded hangar, I ask Clark if the climate might ice today’s journey plans.

He discusses me personally and laughs, opening the hangar door. “Not a chance.”

It’s not surprising that Clark—tall, athletic, copiously tattooed, and a former pro hockey player—doesn’t mind the wintertime weather. However these appear to be conditions that would jeopardize the test journey of a instead complex, entirely brand new, fully electric aircraft. One whoever eight motors and rotors must work in computerized synchrony to help keep the ship aloft and true, whether increasing, down, or ahead.

Clark will have none of such worries. He bounds to the cavernous building that when housed B-52 bombers and introduces me personally towards the Ava XC. The gleaming white contraption, with stilt-like landing gear and eight propellers jutting away in most way, seems like just what Tony Stark would build if he had an Edward Scissorhands phase. It is, in reality, the model that Clark’s company, Beta Technologies, has generated never to only probe the difficulties of electric aviation, but in addition prove this has the aerospace knowhow itself to compete in crowded, yet-to-be-realized marketplace for battery-powered straight takeoff and landing aircraft—what you could phone flying cars.

Clark’s version, though, appears to be further along than most. It’s mostly of the designs relying greatly on a mainstream wing to improve efficiency in horizontal journey, and it is the largest understood eVTOL aircraft to fly yet. More to the point, it is alone having verified launch consumer supplying capital. The mostly carbon fibre, 4,000-pound aircraft holds two battery pack packs totaling 124 kWh. The 34-foot wing sits between outriggers supporting the octet of 143-horsepower permanent-magnet engines and propellers, which pivot from horizontal to 90-degrees directly. The two levels of counter-rotating props run separately, therefore if one layer loses energy, another will keep the Ava in the air—one of many redundancies and safety measures in the aircraft. The funky flyer includes a 172 mph top rate plus range of 150 miles.

In the hangar, Clark’s team gets to work planning the craft the early morning’s test flight. Beta, until now working in key, has performed 175 of those so far. The master plan the 176th is always to place the rotors 70 degrees up from horizontal, to evaluate Ava’s security through the change from vertical to horizontal journey and right back.

The Harvard-educated Clark created Beta in 2017, on heels of numerous electronic devices and pc software startups. (The company title comes from their nickname in college—he was the nerdiest jock of lot, apparently.) Beta is not extremely purchased the much-hyped atmosphere taxi market, however. “The goal of this aircraft was to elicit critical contemplating electric aviation,” states Clark, whom covered his pilot’s permit along with his hockey signing bonus. “The easiest way to do that was to build one thing. So we partnered with the business that became our launch consumer to create this aircraft, and try to fly it nationwide.” No better way, he figured, to expose the technical, logistical, and regulatory issues that populate a industry now house to significantly more than 130 companies, including Larry Page-funded Kitty Hawk, Airbus, Joby, and Bell.

On the Ava’s in the pipeline cross-country journey, the Beta team will follow along within their mobile charging vehicle, a converted tour bus outfitted with generators, solar panel systems, as well as an expanding landing pad on top.

Eric Adams

That launch consumer is United Therapeutics, a Washington, DC-based biotech ensemble developing manufactured organs for human transplant. Its creator, Martine Rothblatt (creator of SiriusXM Satellite Radio), has put an undisclosed but substantial amount into Beta, and wants to make use of its last item getting those organs from factory to hospital. “This technology has the possibility of having the cheapest carbon footprint being the absolute most adaptable toward organ delivery needs we have actually,” claims Rothblatt, who’s another pilot and recently led the transformation of the Robinson R44 toward world’s first full-sized electric helicopter. “i must work free from current constraints, while nevertheless being practical in creating items that work,” she states. “Beta has that type of freethinking tradition, however it’s also a disciplined maker culture.”

Beta is stocked with similarly well-credentialed innovators. Its advisory panel includes Segway creator Dean Kamen and John Abele, founder of medical unit maker Boston Scientific. Its battery pack specialist, Herman Wiegman, was the lead power storage space researcher at GE worldwide Research. Wireless sensor engineer Chris Townsend additionally developed that technology for Bell Helicopters together with McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet fighter jet. David Churchill created the calibration system for accelerometers within the iPhone. Sensor specialist Steve Arms founded LORD Microstrain; and pc software engineer Artur Adib originated from Twitter and Magic Leap. The simulation and modeling technology originates from Austin Meyer, creator regarding the high-fidelity flight simulator X-Plane.

Beta intends to try that cross-country journey, going from Kitty Hawk, new york, to Santa Monica, California, this springtime or summer. Clark—the team’s only test pilot—will probably fly three 60 to 100-mile legs each and every day, stopping for the hour of charging you between them. The group will follow along in Beta’s mobile charging car, a converted tour bus outfitted with generators, solar panel systems, plus an expanding landing pad on the roof. In identical schedule, Clark will expose the ultimate configuration of Beta’s manufacturing aircraft. The flight settings & most associated with the technology will be based on that developed for the Ava, he states, but the size, form, and exact propulsion strategy changes.

Before that cross-country journey can take down, Beta plans to run another 50 test flights or so. The exam set for today, however, looks become stymied with a severed screw in just one of the motor assemblies. The team fixes it, then finds another. Clark, crawling over the aircraft alongside his team, chooses to restore most of the fasteners with higher-strength versions. Ultimately, about two hours behind routine, the crew rolls Ava out of the hangar into the snowfall. They rise aboard two SUVs and tow it away towards the journey line, with Clark at settings.

In between runs regarding the snowfall plows clearing the 12,000-foot runway (long sufficient to act as an urgent situation landing spot the aircraft), Clark spins up the engines. He accelerates down the centerline. Beta’s chase cars battle along side, loaded with designers tracking telemetry on the laptops. After about 10 moments, the aircraft lifts off and glides in a stable, right line, far from the wobbly, hesitant hovering numerous eVTOL organizations have actually demonstrated to date. A lot more remarkably, it really appears like Edward Scissorhands in action, however it’s not nearly as noisy as being a helicopter, good news for those concerned that air taxis is going to be aural menaces. (A right straight jump will probably make more sound.) Clark sets it back down, turns around at the conclusion of this strip, and makes another pass.

About halfway down in the other direction, the designers lose their telemetry sign through the aircraft. Several passes later, a roll sensor inside fly-by-wire control system signals failing. Clark calls a conclusion towards the day’s evaluating, saying they’ve got the information they required. He additionally notes this one of Beta’s current challenges is tuning the rule to better decipher between sound as well as an actual bad sensor.

Currently, Ava has accomplished flight times during the roughly 18 mins in a hover and more than an hour while tethered, a high rate of 72 knots, and a maximum altitude of 100 feet—and is regularly enhancing for each. It’s hard to compare that progress against other, mainly secretive, eVTOL programs. If the forex market shows down, however, it’ll make room for lots of manufacturers, and tens and thousands of aircraft.

Viewing Ava float throughout the airport, we neglect the dropping snow, and towards skeptics dismissing the atmosphere taxi industry as cash-burning vaporware. Despite having today’s assessment hiccups, Beta’s aircraft appears an excellent trip for the human organ—or also an entire person—trying to get where they’re going.


More Great WIRED Stories

The Top WIRED Photo Stories of 2018

The Hellish E-Waste Graveyards Where Computers Are Mined for Metal. Ever wonder where your old batteries, phones, and light-up toys wind up? The answer is dumps like this one in Ghana, China, and India. Kai Löffelbein took us there in his eye-opening book CTRL-X: A Topography of E-Waste.

A Rare Look Inside the Korean DMZ, the ‘Scariest Place on Earth’. The 155-mile Korean Demilitarized Zone contains one of the largest concentrations of soldiers and artillery in the world. Park Jongwoo received rare permission to photograph inside the zone—accompanied, of course, by a squadron of soldiers.

Hilarious Images of Bored Tourists From Around the World. Each summer, travelers descend on Europe to see the same churches, museums, and landmarks as everyone else. Laurence Stephens is often right there with them, photographing them as they photograph everything else. His images appeared in a fun new book this year.

Ominous Views of Japan’s New Concrete Seawalls. Gray walls now line the coast of northeast Japan, where entire villages were destroyed by the 2011 tsunami. Tadashi Ono documented these imposing structures, which shut out any view of the sea.

Aerial Views of Mexico’s Dystopian Housing Developments. The US’s southern neighbor has spent more than $100 billion on sprawling housing developments. Photographer Jorge Taboada calls them “sinister paradises,” and his mesmerizing aerial photographs reveal why.

You’ve Never Seen Waves Like This Before. Rachel Talibart’s incredible photographs freeze waves in action, letting you appreciate every ripple and splash.

Want to Take Stunning Photographs? Turn Your Camera Upside Down. You can’t tell where one building starts or ends in Arnau Rovira Vidal’s mesmerizing series Reform. Taken with a Lomo camera, they combine two exposures to form one trippy shot.

Bolivia Is Landlocked. Don’t Tell That to Its Navy. Bolivia lost its coastline to Chile more than 100 years ago, but its sailors continue to navigate water wherever they can. Nick Ballon’s wonderful series captures their resolve.

The Secret Tools Magicians Use to Fool You. Fake thumbs. Silicone eggs. Funkenrings. Louis de Belle exposed these gimmicks for what they are in his clever new book Disappearing Objects.

Inside the US Military’s Secret Doomsday Defense. Jim Lo Scalzo documented the secret bunkers, missile silos, and other Cold War-era infrastructure scattered around the US. It’ll make you look twice at that old “water tower.”

Intimate Glimpses of Ordinary Life in Iran. Teenagers skateboarding, couples taking selfies, kids riding in shopping carts—these vignettes of the day-to-day in Iran by Simone Tramonte are beautiful and refreshing.

Can You Spot the Hidden Images in These Psychedelic Landscapes?. Terri Loewenthal photographed rugged landscapes with colored filters and reflective optics to produce these trippy scenes.

Why We All Take the Same Travel Photos. Geotagging has made it clear just how redundant all our snaps of the Golden Gate Bridge, Buckingham Palace, and the Taj Mahal are. But we still take them. This essay explored why.

Side-By-Side Photos of Paris and Its Chinese Knockoff. Residents of the Chinese city of Tianducheng don’t have to board a plane to visit the Eiffel Tower, Arc de Triomphe, or the gardens of Versailles. But Francois Prost, a photographer who actually lives in Paris, did for his fascinating series Paris Syndrome.

The Techies Turning Kenya Into a Silicon Savannah. Janek Stroisch’s bright photographs presented a promising vision of Kenya, home to a $1 billion tech hub.

Meet the World’s Most Hardcore LARPers. Boris Leist had to dress up as a mendicant monk named Boris the Reader to gain credibility with the Live Action Role Playing community he photographed in Germany. It paid off with these spectacular portraits of zombies, mutants, and orcs.

The Trailblazing Women Who Fight California’s Fires. Christie Hemm Klok’s portraits were a stirring tribute to the hundreds of women who serve in the San Francisco Fire Department.

Aerial Images Capture Swathes of Amazon Rainforest Destroyed by Gold Mining. Ernesto Benavides hung from the open doors of police helicopters to shoot these mind-blowing images showing the impact of illegal gold mining in Peru.

The Camp in Alabama Bringing Outer Space to the Blind. Kids at SCIVIS undergo astronaut training with help from braille, large print texts, and handheld magnifiers. No one will blame you for tearing up.

A Rare Bird’s-Eye View of Hong Kong’s Vanishing Rooftop Culture. Romain Jacquet-Lagrèze spied on unsuspecting city dwellers to capture these gorgeous images of rooftop culture.

These Celebrity Portraits Are Fake. Sort of. Britney Spears, Justin Bieber, and Mike Tyson look weirdly creepy in these bizarre portraits of wax models by Peter Andrew Lusztyk. Yet you can’t look away. “Once people realize what they’re looking at, there is this sort of revulsion, or disgust,” Lusztyk says.

The Mighty Honeybee Is Fighting Poverty and Deforestation in Zanzibar. Jurre Rompa captured the bee-autiful partnership between bees and beekeepers.

Capturing Humor in a Sea of Red Tape. Ole Witt’s photographs of bureaucracy in India made the DMV seem half-alright.

Want to Hunt Aliens? Go to West Virginia’s Low-Tech ‘Quiet Zone’. There’s a 13,000-square-mile swathe of land straddling West Virginia’s border with Virginia and Maryland where most technology is prohibited or simply doesn’t work. Photographers Andrew Phelps and Paul Kranzler ventured in to produce this incredible series.